Web Analytics

Nuffnang

Friday, February 17, 2012

Semoga Semuanya Kembali Seperti Dulu....


Pneumonia
Classification and external resources
A Xray showing a white wedge in the right lung field of a chest X-ray.

Paru-paru berair atau juga dikenali sebagai Pneumonia merujuk kepada semua jenis keadaan di mana air berkumpul dalam paru-paru. Ia berpunca dari pelbagai keadaan. Paru-paru berair merupakan sejenis penyakit radang raru-paru. Biasanya, ia digambarkan sebagai radang parenchyma/alveolar paru-paru dan cecair memenuhi alveolar luar biasa. (alveoli merupakan sak mikroskopik dipenuhi udara dalam paru-paru yang bertanggungjawab bagi menyerap oksigen dalam atmosfera Bumi.) Paru-paru berair boleh berpunca dari pelbagai punca, termasuk jangkitan oleh bakteria, virus, fungi, atau parasit, dan kimia atau kecederaan fizikal kepada paru-paru. Puncanya juga boleh secara tidak rasmi digambarkan sebagai idiopathic—iaitu, tidak diketahui—apabila pinca jangkitan telah disingkirkan.

Simptom biasa dikaitkan dengan paru-paru berair termasuk batuk, sakit dada, demam, dan sukar bernafas. Perkakasan diagnosis termasuk sinar-X dan pemeriksaan sputum. Rawatan bergantung kepada punca paru-paru berair; Paru-paru berair bakteria dirawat dengan antibiotik.

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung—especially affecting the microscopic air sacs (alveoli)—associated with fever, chest symptoms, and a lack of air space (consolidation) on a chest X-ray. 
Pneumonia is typically caused by an infection but there are a number of other causes. Infectious agents include: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
Typical symptoms include cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. Diagnostic tools include x-rays and examination of the sputum. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Presumed bacterial pneumonia is treated with antibiotics.
Although pneumonia was regarded by William Osler in the 19th century as "the captain of the men of death", the advent of antibiotic therapy and vaccines in the 20th century have seen radical improvements in survival outcomes. Nevertheless, in the third world, and among the very old, the very young and the chronically ill, pneumonia remains a leading cause of death

Cause

Pneumonia is due primarily to infections, with less common causes including irritants and the unknown. Although more than one hundred strains of microorganisms can cause pneumonia, only a few are responsible for most cases. The most common types of infectious agents are viruses and bacteria, with its being less commonly due to fungi or parasites. Mixed infections with both viruses and bacteria may occur in up to 45% of infections in children and 15% of infections in adults. A causative agent is not isolated in approximately half of cases despite careful testing. The term pneumonia is sometimes more broadly applied to inflammation of the lung (for example caused by autoimmune disease, chemical burns or drug reactions), however this is more accurately referred to as pneumonitis.

 

Diagnosis

Pneumonia is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical signs and a chest X-ray. Confirming the underlying cause can be difficult, however, with no definitive test able to distinguish between bacterial and not-bacterial origin. The World Health Organization has defined pneumonia in children clinically based on either a cough or difficulty breathing and a rapid respiratory rate, chest in-drawing, or a decreased level of consciousness. A rapid respiratory rate is defined as greater than 60 breaths per minute in children under 2 months old, 50 breaths per minute in children two months to one year old, or greater than 40 breaths per minute in children one to five years old. In children, an increased respiratory rate and lower chest indrawing are more sensitive than hearing chest crackles with a stethoscope.



In adults, investigations are in general not needed in mild cases as if all vital signs and auscultation are normal the risk of pneumonia is very low. In those requiring admission to a hospital, pulse oximetry, chest radiography, and blood tests including a complete blood count, serum electrolytes, C-reactive protein, and possibly liver function tests are recommended. The diagnosis of influenza-like illness can be made based on the presenting signs and symptoms however verification of an influenza infection requires testing. Thus treatment is frequently based on the presence of influenza in the community or a rapid influenza test.




Malam kelmarin aku dan keluarga dikejutkan dengan berita mak andak dimasukkan ke hospital dan dalam keadaan kritikal - jangkitan kuman dalam paru-paru. Alhamdulillah, sewaktu aku melawat petang semalam keadaan mak andak kembali stabil. Cuma tekanan darah saja yang ada masalah. Kami semua sugul. Sebab mak andak seorang yang girang dan suka melatah. Tapi bila melihat keadaan mak andak yang terlantar, hati siapa yang tidak hiba.

Sewaktu kecil aku dijaga oleh mak andak sehingga berumur 4 tahun. Sebelum berpindah ke Kajang. Seorang yang sihat dan girang tiba-tiba sakit buat kami semua tak keruan. Bukan sakit yang dihidap tetapi kerana sakit yang dapat ditempat tak sepatutnya..

Semoga semuanya kembali seperti sediakala.. amin....


*Semoga Allah memberikan kekuatan kepada mak andak. 
Semoga mak andak cepat sembuh dan sihat seperti dulu..*

 

No comments:

Post a Comment